We still do not know everything that blood can tell us It has recently been announced that up to 50 different types of cancer can be detected in very early stages through a specific blood test, another type of test can show the probability of having Alzheimer’s and a study has also just been published that ensures that by analyzing the blood of a pregnant woman, from the 10th week of pregnancy, it is possible to identify almost one hundred percent of the possible genetic problems without the need for amyocentesis. Taking into account that it circulates through all the organs and tissues of the body, the potential of blood as a watchdog and informer of diseases is showing itself to be very useful and that is why today there are so many scientific studies focused on finding out what else it can reveal. “The truth is that the potential is unfathomable and the possibilities are endless. Blood is a red fluid that, as our ancestors used to say, has something magical about it, to the point that if we lose it we die,” says Cristina Arbona, director of the Center of Transfusion of Valencia and member of the Spanish Society of Hematology and Hemotherapy. Blood is made up of water, proteins, nutrients, and living cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets). Laboratory tests are typically used to measure or analyze the number or condition of cells, chemicals, proteins, and other components, keeping in mind that each of these cell types has a special function. What is best known by ordinary mortals is that: Red blood cells are necessary to transport oxygen throughout your body. Platelets help stop bleeding. White blood cells fight infection. But the information and potential of the blood goes further: “We still do not know everything that the blood can tell us. The most common analyzes show alterations in molecules warning of tumor diseases, glucose levels, thyroid information, of the kidneys, of the liver. But it depends on what you want to know, you look for a certain analysis or another”, explains the doctor. In the Clinical Laboratories is where the answers are sought to help the diagnosis. An adult person has between 4.5 and 5.5 liters of blood running through their veins and arteries. This is equivalent to 8-10% of her body weight. Medical specialist in clinical biochemistry, Molecular DIagnistuci resoi Hosoritla VIrgen Rocioevk. Fairy Matcher “We still don’t know everything that blood can tell us” And our ancestors used to say something magical, and they are always right, among other things when you lose it you die. People die, it has infinite possibilities. What is done with the blood is to diagnose but based on biochemical studies (tumor markers) in classic analyzes that primary care doctors ask for to know the functioning of the organs through proteins that when they rise in blood they give clues that the organ may be suffering from an injury and that is why that marker rises, it is a meteorite that must be at a normal level and that if it rises more than necessary it shows something, let’s put the bilirunin if it rises more than necessary is showing that you have an obstruction in the gallbladder That with classic analyzes that have been done for many years, then there are the analyzes of meteopathies are those of the screening of the newborn, the one of the heel that metabolites are analyzed, ue no they must accumulate in the blood And then there is the novelty, which is the genetic analysis that studies the DNA of the blood cells With a blood sample you take the DNA of the leukocytes and if DNA you can see hereditary cancer (5% of cancers) tells you if you have a cancer susceptibility gene, which is not that you are going to catch it, but it warns you that you have a predisposition. In medicine, nothing is 100 percent certain, but if some genes are warning you that a person has a predisposition, you can act. There are some that are very predominant, those of thrombophilia, for example. We are working with the complete exome, they are all the exomes of the human being, the genome. human is huge we have panels of 23 thousand genes, because the 23 thousand genes that are known at the human level are 2% of the genome We only study 2% in the exome (the 23 thousand genes that make the exome) of those 23,000 only 8000 are known to be associated with human disease. Most are susceptibility genes (for cancer) When you do the complete exome you have all the genes… genetic analysis of one gene or of the 23,000 you have everything, today is what can tell us so many things, it would be like a genetic setriming , There has to be a doctor behind because the first thing is that you don’t know that you don’t have to suffer from the disease later. What you can see when you do the genetic analysis of all the proteins that a human body manufactures, because there are some that are already known that are associated with a disease and there are susceptibility genes, and there are genes that it is not known if they will influence or not in the future (it is kept in the patient’s clinic for future consultation) There is the analysis of the plasma, if you separate it from the You don’t analyze the leukocytes in blood, you analyze the DNA that goes into Plasma. the difference is that in this one you have mutated DNA again, the other 90% of cancers that are not hereditary, some cell in your body is mutating and that is seen in the DNA of the plasma. It is what is called a liquid biopsy, you see somatic genes, another thing that you can see is the pregnant woman, she has the DNA of the fetus in her plasma, so it is taken out and you can see some abnormalities or mutations One thing is the genetic analysis with which you are born and another is the plasma that gives us information about the fetus that is sending DNA to your plasma, about cancer that is not hereditary but is showing that it has mutated into your plasma. Even the bacteria that live with you (intestine, body, they can tell you ) The Plasma measures everything that lives in your body But the techniques to analyze the plasma are not yet well developed because it has so little DNA that you have to use very, very specific techniques and with a lot of depth and today very expensive to be able to see that Minimal DNA that shows something The small percentages give you information on what the Fetus has with respect to the mother, they give you information on the liquid biopsy, the acquired cancer, and they give you information on the organ that has treated you (in the case of transplantation). ansplantes) shows you the genes that are not yours as they go… you have a marker of suffering from a transplanted organ. Those are the three applications. In the future, many more things will be seen, but in principle you have to differentiate what is hereditary and comes in your cells and what is acquired, which is cancer. Genetic analyzes are requested by doctors when they suspect cancer. an illness. The usual analyzes that are done right now are biochemical metabolites that see if there is any organ that is suffering more than necessary, if the liver transminases are gone, glucose, etc., ..then once you have the disease enfilade, and no It is a common cause that asks for the genetic analysis… Before gene panels were requested, it is the analysis of the exome, and if later you ask me for something else, I have the exome… The ideal would be a genetic screening of the xoma, to know the possible diseases that we are going to have ………………………….. Blood tests are used to measure or analyze cells, chemical substances, proteins and other components and there are many types, omar Blood is made up of water, proteins, nutrients, and living cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets). Each of these cell types has a special function. Red blood cells are needed to carry oxygen throughout your body. Platelets help stop bleeding White blood cells fight infection. U the blood circulates through all the organs and tissues of the body and therefore is a carrier of most of the nuotransmitters molecules from different places that show us the changes The blood can allow us to predict with alterations the alterations of molecules or certain tumor diseases For that we have to be clear about what we want to study at this time, the routine is limited to about 100 determinants but they can really be infinite, the routine of what is usually looked at but the possibilities can be measured blood glucose, diabetics measure it themselves The prognosis to see the evolution of certain tumors There are blood markers that allow you to know if you have a predisposition HyaMarkers such as TNF ..it is not in a standard laboratory Hya other diseases that are determined at the beginning — It is a vehicle that travels It is possible On the one hand, with an early analysis it is known that this cell is developing with the generic analysis, what is p The potential The truth Ad is that the potential is unfathomable, it will be expanded, the years that I have been exercising, there are more and more types of analysisi Blood has many functions, most of it is water, what it does is circulate through the veins that water has dissolved substances that we can determine, some proteins allow us to maintain the ongotic pressure so that the water does not flow to the tissues in an uncontrolled manner or vice versa There are substances that circulate sodium, potassium, etc. They have an infinity of functions and origins ALL organs are nourished and discharge waste into the blood that is filtered by the kidney and eliminated through the urine Distribution vehicle to the different cells and vice versa to transport the debris to the kidney The liver synthesizes proteins that prevent our blood from coagulating Hormones, the thyroid etc. blood groups… within the blood some cells are circulating that allow us to Blood is a red fluid that our ancestors already said was something magical, between and other things when it is lost people die, it has infinite possibilities, All cells have molecules with a lot of functions, among them blood groups. If you have a type of blood group you have more possibilities of infecting certain viruses There are of many whose function is not known We still don’t know everything that blood can tell us For now I don’t know if there will be a limit in 200 years but right now it doesn’t exist It’s a sneak…
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