What is the happiest country in the world? This is the top 5, according to a survey 0:59 See here the result of the live voting of the elections in Colombia this May 29. (CNN Spanish) — Located in South America, Colombia is one of the largest countries in the region with a privileged diversity: from jungles, mountains and deserts through the bustling urban centers of the highlands of the Andes to its culture and population . A population of more than 48 million people, according to the official figure, as varied as its landscapes: the majority of Colombians have Spanish, indigenous and African ancestry. This rich cultural miscegenation has made the country’s food, music and art diverse and unique. Colombia is recognized in the world for its coffee crops, being the third largest producer behind Brazil and Vietnam, according to the International Coffee Organization. But also for being the main producer of cocaine in the world, according to the CIA Factbook. Blockades leave millions in losses for Colombian coffee 4:53 Its strategic location on the map turned Colombia into an active drug trafficking center that accelerated its production in the 1970s when criminal groups “took advantage of the cocaine consumption trend in United States,” says InsightCrime. By the 1980s, the first major drug cartels emerged: Pablo Escobar’s Medellín Cartel and the Cali Cartel, in the southwest of the country. The recent history of this Latin American country is marked by a violent civil conflict between different guerrilla groups, paramilitaries and state agents financed by drug trafficking that intensified in the 1990s. And although in December 2016 the Colombian government signed a peace with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the void left by this guerrilla group was filled by other rebel groups, according to the CIA Factbook. Despite decades of internal conflict and drug-related security challenges, Colombia maintains “relatively strong and independent democratic institutions characterized by peaceful and transparent elections and the protection of civil liberties,” the CIA says. Colombia in data Here is a look at the only South American country that has coasts in the North Pacific Ocean and access to the Caribbean Sea, according to data from the CIA Factbook: Extension: 1,138,910 km2 It is the fourth largest country in South America, after Brazil , Argentina and Peru, and is ranked 27th in the world. Location: North of South America. Its north coast borders the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and its northwest coast borders the Pacific Ocean between Ecuador and Panama. To the south, it limits with Peru and Ecuador and to the east with Venezuela and Brazil. Population: 49,059,221 (2022), according to the CIA / 48,258,494, according to DANE. It ranks 29th in the world in terms of population and is made up as follows: mestizo and white 87.6%, Afro-Colombian 6.8% (includes mulatto, Raizal and palenquero), 4.3% indigenous, 1, 4% unspecified (2018 est.) Economy: GDP per capita US$5,334.6 (2020) Official language: Spanish Colombia is the country with the second largest number of Spanish speakers (with Spanish as the official language), followed by Mexico, according to the Cervantes Institute. In addition, the CIA Factbook says that 65 indigenous languages are spoken in the country. Religion: Christian 92.3% (predominantly Roman Catholic), other 1%, unspecified 6.7% (2020 est.) Form of Government: Presidential Republic President: Iván Duque Márquez (since August 7, 2018) Capital: Bogotá Some history The first known inhabitants of Colombia were a civilization called Chibcha. The Spanish arrived in what is now Colombia in 1500 and after more than three centuries of conquest and colonization of the Spanish empire, the feeling of independence spread in America. Between 1810 and 1819, the process of Independence of Colombia was carried out to free the territories that at that time were part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada. Finally, full independence was achieved after Spain’s defeat by the revolutionary leader Simón Bolívar in 1819. In 1840 a civil war occurred that slowed down the development achieved after independence. In 1899, conflict between the Liberal and Conservative parties led to the Thousand Days’ War that ended in 1903, according to Encyclopedia Britannica. Years of relative peace followed, but hostility flared up again in 1948 until 1958 when both parties agreed on a plan for alternate governments. In 1991 a new Constitution was adopted. For much of its history as an independent country, Colombia has faced violent civil conflict for decades, including the guerrillas of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), which would be joined by paramilitary groups and drug gangs. After a long negotiation process between the Government of Juan Manuel Santos and the FARC, in 2016 the Peace Agreement was finally signed. But not all FARC combatants accepted the demobilization and are now part of the dissidents. With information from Germán Padinger
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