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Monkey pox: in France, symptoms, how is it caught? – The Women’s Journal

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MONKEYPOX. After England, Canada, Spain, Portugal, the United States, France announces a case of monkey pox also called “Monkeypox”. This disease can be transmitted to humans by rodents or monkeys. What’s this ? What symptoms? Treatments? Is it dangerous? Contagious ? We take stock. Summary

[Mise à jour le 21 mai 2022 à 20h21] The monkeypox virus or “Monkeypox” virus is the cause of an infectious disease transmitted to humans by animals, especially rodents and monkeys. The first human cases of infection were detected in 1970, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 80 cases are currently recorded worldwide. WHO and its partners are working to better understand the extent and cause of this new outbreak of monkeypox. The virus is endemic in certain animal populations in a number of countries, causing occasional outbreaks among the local population and travelers. The recent outbreaks reported in 11 countries so far are atypical, as they occur in non-endemic countries. explains the World Health Organization (WHO). On May 16, 2022, the UK Health Safety Agency (UKHSA) reported about ten cases of Monkeypox “mostly in gay, bisexual or men who have sex with men.” On May 13, Portugal reports 5 confirmed cases and 15 suspected cases under investigation. “These 20 cases concern men, most of them young” specifies Public Health France. On May 18, 2022, Canada and Spain announced that they had detected cases of monkeypox. Sweden also confirms a case. The United States reported its first case on May 19. In France, the General Directorate of Health confirmed on May 19 a first suspected case of monkey pox in Ile-de-France. “As soon as his infection was suspected, this person was taken care of. In the absence of seriousness, he is isolated at his home. He is a 29-year-old man with no history of travel to a country where the virus” indicates Public Health France on May 20. “In France, infections by orthopoxviruses, including Monkeypox, are subject to long-term monitoring by the Mandatory Declaration system. Given the current alerts, monitoring of these infections is reinforced by Public Health France and recommendations have been sent to health professionals by the ministry” adds the health organization. For all confirmed cases, analyzes revealed a virus belonging to the “West Africa” ​​clade of the MKP1 virus, suggesting an initial link with Nigeria, a country in which the virus has been circulating regularly since 2017. case reported in the UK on May 7 imported from Nigeria, the new cases reported do not report travel to Africa or link to a person returning from Africa. “At this stage, the cases reported are mostly mild, and there are no reported deaths,” specifies the DGS. What is monkey pox? What are the symptoms ? How is it transmitted to humans? What treatments to treat it? What is the situation in France? Is this virus dangerous? Definition: what is monkeypox? “Simian orthopoxvirus, or “monkey pox”, is a rare viral zoonosis (virus transmitted to humans from animals) found mainly in isolated areas of central and western Africa, close to tropical rainforests” says the WHO. “African rodents and non-human primates (such as monkeys) can harbor the virus and infect humans,” says the US Agency for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). “This virus resembles that of smallpox clinically but monkeypox is caused by a poxvirus different from the smallpox virus” explains the World Health Organization (WHO). The first human case was detected in 1970, in the Democratic Republic of Congo in a 9-year-old boy living in an area where smallpox had been eliminated since 1968. Image of a macaque © grigory_bruev-123RF How many cases of monkeypox in France ? The Directorate General of Health confirmed on May 20 a first suspected case of monkeypox in Ile-de-France. “He is a 29-year-old man with no history of travel to a country where the virus is circulating” said Public Health France that same day. As soon as his infection was suspected, the person was taken care of. In the absence of gravity, she is isolated in her home. An in-depth epidemiological investigation is carried out by teams from Public Health France and ARS Ile-de-France, in conjunction with the doctor who treated this person. The people who have been in close contact with this patient are currently being identified. They will receive information from the health authorities on what to do in order to limit the spread of the virus. Monkeypox infection is a reportable disease. If symptoms appear, contact the SAMU Center 15. What are the symptoms of monkeypox? Symptoms resemble those of smallpox patients, but milder. In the first 5 days, the infection causes several symptoms: fever headache adenopathy (swollen lymph nodes) back pain myalgia (muscle pain) asthenia (exhaustion) Within 1 to 3 days (sometimes longer) after the onset of fever, the patient develops symptoms of a skin rash (rash) that often begins on the face and then spreads to other parts of the body, including the palms of the hands, soles of the feet and mucous membranes (mouth and lower genital). Skin involvement occurs in a single push. Itching is common. The lesions go through different successive stages: macules papules vesicles pustules crusts When the crusts fall off, people are no longer contagious. The other mucous membranes (ENT, conjunctivae) may also be affected. Recently detected cases in men who have sex with men have reported a preponderance of lesions in the genital area. “The incubation of the disease can range from 5 to 21 days. The fever phase lasts about 1 to 3 days. The disease, generally mild, most often heals spontaneously, after 2 to 3 weeks” emphasizes Public Health France . ► If symptoms appear (fever and rash with blisters), contact SAMU Center 15. It is recommended that you isolate yourself while waiting for medical advice and avoid contact with other people. Transmission: how is monkey pox caught? “The virus is mainly transmitted to humans from various wild animals, rodents or primates for example, but secondary spread by human-to-human transmission is limited” reassures the WHO. Infection is caused by direct contact with blood, body fluids or skin or mucous membrane lesions of infected animals. “In Africa, human infections have been documented as a result of handling infected monkeys, Gambian giant rats and squirrels, with rodents thought to be the main reservoir of the virus. Consumption of meat from infected animals is not sufficiently cooked is a possible risk factor” develops the WHO. Human-to-human transmission occurs primarily through respiratory droplet particles. Other modes of human-to-human transmission include direct skin contact with body fluids or the lesion, and indirect contact with the lesion, such as through contaminated clothing, linens, or dishes. “It is therefore important that patients respect isolation for the entire duration of the disease (until the disappearance of the last scabs, most often 3 weeks)” recommends Public Health France. According to researchers at the Institut Pasteur, the transmission of the monkeypox virus outside Africa “is probably due to the global decline in immunity to viruses of the orthopoxvirus genus (responsible for human smallpox), following the cessation of smallpox vaccination in the 1980s. Monkeypox could therefore become the most important orthopoxvirus infection in humans”. Is monkeypox contagious? There may be transmission of the disease between men, for example within the same family via exposure to respiratory droplets from the infected person, but this “generally requires prolonged face-to-face contact” underlines the WHO. The disease is thus not very contagious between men. It can also occur by inoculation or by the placental route (congenital simian orthopoxvirosis). To diagnose the disease, it is necessary to go through an analysis of the virus in the laboratory. What is the treatment for monkeypox? “There is no specific treatment or vaccine, although smallpox vaccination has been shown to be very effective in preventing monkeypox as well,” the WHO points out. Monkeypox is a disease from which the patient usually recovers spontaneously in two to three weeks. Is there a monkeypox vaccine? There is no vaccine against Monkeypox but that against smallpox would be 85% effective according to the Pasteur Institute. Is monkeypox fatal? “The mortality rate during outbreaks of monkeypox has been between 1% and 10%, with most deaths occurring in younger people,” says the WHO. “The disease usually lasts 2 to 4 weeks. In Africa, monkeypox has been shown to kill at least 1 in 10 people who contract the disease,” the CDC states. “The disease is more serious in children and in immunocompromised people. It can be complicated by superinfection of skin lesions or respiratory, digestive or ophthalmological or neurological damage. At this stage, the cases reported in Europe are mostly mild, and there are no reported deaths” reports Santé Publique France on May 20. Sources: – Monkeypox, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – Monkeypox virus infection, WHO, June 6, 2018 – Institut Pasteur

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