“Our goal is to develop a single vaccine against influenza and coronavirus. However, there are tests to be completed, the authorizations to be obtained. I would estimate one or two years.” So Andrea Carfi, head of research on infectious diseases of Moderna, coordinator of the scientists who have developed the vaccine against Covid. “The effectiveness against the coronavirus is encouraging – he tells Repubblica – We have a range of diseases to deal with, from HIV to the respiratory syncytial virus that endangers the Infants. Clinical tests for the flu vaccine will start shortly. RNA allows it to be updated rapidly to the new strains and to increase its effectiveness compared to the current one. Carfi then reminds us that “we have completed the vaccine studies on adolescents and now let’s move on with the tests on children. Going backwards with age, we will be up to six months. “He also announces that” we have an updated version for the South African variant. we are testing “. “The amount of antibodies after vaccination drops with the passing of the months – explains Carfi about the boosters for the vaccine – At the moment we are thinking of a third administration, but with a reduced dosage compared to the first two. From 100 micrograms we can go to 50 or 20. As for the variants – he specifies – the RNA technology allows the vaccine to be updated quickly. 40 days are enough, net of clinical trials. We are currently testing a new version against the variant identified in South Africa, the one that makes the current vaccine lose more efficacy. Our tests consist of taking blood from the vaccinated and putting it in contact with the new strains of the virus. Antibodies in the blood can bind more or less well to the coronavirus, thus being more or less effective in blocking it. If we see that the loss of effectiveness is important, as in the case of the South African, we can decide to undertake the updating operation ”. What kind of recall could we expect in the fall? “We are testing three options – continues Carfi – The first is a third administration of the current version of the vaccine, to raise the level of antibodies. The second is a booster with RNA updated to the South African variant. The third option is a mix of the two. vaccines, and from the first clinical data it seems the best.We are also about to submit the request to regulatory agencies in Europe and the United States, in the age group from 12 to 18. The immune response of adolescents is as good as in adults. For them we used the same dosage, 100 micrograms. For the pediatric age instead we will test even lower dosages. On children we proceed with caution, gradually decreasing in age, up to six months. The little ones have a type of response different immune system “. As for the time needed between the first administration and the second, Carfi states that” the evaluations are up to the national health agencies. We from the field vaccination data we see that the efficacy begins two weeks after the first dose, but the second is important for having stronger immune responses, and therefore better and longer protection. With some variants, the protection after the first injection may not be sufficient. The more fragile and at risk people are, and the more new strains are in circulation, the more important it becomes to have the second dose ”.