NewsHealth"Effective and safe anticancer vaccine", Italians reveal mechanism

“Effective and safe anticancer vaccine”, Italians reveal mechanism

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From the Italian research “an important step forward in the new frontier of the fight against cancer that exploits the immune system”, that of anticancer vaccines. Scientists from the Armenise-Harvard immunoregulation laboratory of the Igm (Italian Institute for Genomic Medicine), based at Irccs Fpo in Candiolo, Turin, directed by Luigia Pace, have discovered that “it is possible to induce an effective immune response against cancer using an adenoviral vaccine, safe for humans, which codes for mutations present in cancer cells “. The study was published in ‘Science Translational Medicine’, in collaboration with the Swiss-Italian biotech company Nouscom. “Until now – underlines Pace – the mechanism by which adenoviral vaccines instruct the immune system to target cancer cells was not known and also for this reason their efficacy in the treatment of cancer patients was doubtful. With this discovery an important discovery has been made. step forward, so much so that it is reasonable to think that a vaccine therapy based on adenoviral vectors will soon become a concrete therapeutic option in oncology “. The specialist explains that “in vaccines constructed with adenoviral vectors, a high number of tumor mutations can be encoded. In combination with checkpoint inhibitor (anti PD-1) immunotherapy drugs, they have been shown to be effective against the tumors studied”. been studied in the laboratory – reports a note from the Armenise-Harvard Foundation – the new vaccine was also the subject of a first clinical study conducted in the USA by Nouscom, on 12 patients with colon cancer of the Msi type (with instability of the micro satellites) in metastatic phase.In chronic diseases – the note recalls – lymphocytes, cells of our immune system, lose the ability to control both infection and tumor progression. However, a small group of lymphocytes called CD8 +, which have the function of identifying and killing virus-infected cells or cancer cells, retain the ability to activate an effective immune response and kill cancer cells. Researchers from the Iigm immunoregulation laboratory observed that the vaccine increases the number of CD8 + lymphocytes both in the lymph nodes and in the tumor: “A fact that opens up new perspectives in precision medicine for the treatment of tumors resistant to immunotherapy and at risk of relapse” , says Pace. “We have understood – he highlights – what is the mechanism of action that determines the effectiveness of the vaccine”, and “thanks to this increased knowledge we can transform our experimental analyzes into more precise targeted therapies for each patient”. “Furthermore, considering that the technique for making these vaccines is decidedly tested (the vaccine platform works like that of other vaccines, including preventive infectious diseases, already available on the market), and that the data obtained in the first clinical trial are very promising – concludes the expert – there is a real possibility of creating new vaccines effective against many other types of cancer “.

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